G’day supergrass and welcome to the forums.
For starters, all knowledge is relative and we all started from somewhere lower down the food chain. Don’t rush it and try and figure out what you need to know.
The best advice I can offer is that the only truly dumb question is the one that never gets asked.
To give you a bit of a start, in laymans terms;
When data goes backwards and forwards across the internet it is in IP protocol (IP actually stands for Internet Protocol).
Within the IP protocol there are things like TCP, UDP, GRE, ICMP, BGP etc. These are all just dialects of IP catering for specific types of data. This is sorta like the difference between formal English and colloquial “man-in-the-street” English. They’re both English but targetted at different audiences. Or the difference between legal mumbo-jumbo and English. They’re both English, but each is designed to convey a specific intent.
Ports are fortified wines and Australia makes the best ones. Sorry, Portugal, but try beating a 1982 Para Liquer.
TPC/IP ports are a different thing. When data goes in or out of your PC it passes through what is known as your IP stack. You only have one IP stack per network adaptor, but each stack supports up to 65535 ports. This is like where you have one radio, but that one radio can receive multiple stations and each station has a different audience or purpose.
When you type in “www.google.com” what you have implicitly typed is “http://www.google.com:80”. This translates, loosely, as “I’m sending a HTTP (WWW) request to a server called google.com and I’m sending it to its port 80, because that is the port that google.com is listening on for incoming HTTP requests”. Your outgoing request also includes a port for google to respond to and it will be a port on your IP stack somewhere above port 1056. Your browser transparently adds the “http://” bit, the “:80” bit" and the response port info.
What you’ve now ended up with is google.com listening on port 80 and receiving your inbound request which includes the response port. Meanwhile, back at the ranch, your PC is listening on the response port for something coming back from google.com.
Ultimately, your PC is talking to google’s port 80 and listening for a response on (for example) port 1056. Google, on the other hand, is listening on port 80 and talking on port 1056. Sort of like dual channel CB radio.
In the same way that web requests (HTTP) go to port 80 (and/or port 443 for the smarties just about to jump in and mention secure HTTP for e-commerce), other protocols have specific ports. FTP (for file transfers) uses ports 20 and 21, emails (in various guises) uses ports 25 and 110 (amongst others). This port allocation is designed to keep different type of communication streams separate from one another. The port allocation scheme has been around for donkeys years and, overall, has served the internet community beautifully.
Whew! Time for a big breath.
As I said, take your time and ask questions as you go.
There are several FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) boards on the Comodo forums that users have contributed. The two most basic ones are listed below and cover “Network and Internet Terminology” and “Internet Acronyms”. They’re a good place to start.
I hope this hasn’t been too much in one gulp for you. Perservere, be patient and don’t stop asking questions.
Hope all this helps,